Space Photos of the Week: A Cruise Around Mars’ Hale Crater

Mars isn’t short of interesting craters, but Hale Crater has a lot going on. It’s a fairly large impact crater running almost 62 miles across, featuring recurring slope lineae (elements that are seasonal and some think are linked to liquid water) and active gullies. The greenish blue is colored bedrock, exposed by whatever giant rock or comet impacted the surface, and the other geologic activities, like wind erosion and possible melting ice, make Hale Crater a never-ending exciting place to explore.

While it doesn’t look like a giant arachnid, this sparkling region—captured by the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope, in unprecedented detail—is called the Tarantula Nebula. It’s only 160,000 light years away, which by astronomical standards is not rather far. The Tarantula Nebula contains regions where stars are forming, while others contain remnants of supernova explosions and large clouds of dust.

It’s easy to forget that our Sun is one star among many, and is actively aging and doing other starlike things. Last week NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured the Sun in extreme ultraviolet light, shown here in bluish green. The bright white glow toward the left is a burst of highly charged particles that then speed around the magnetic field lines, shown in streaks around the white glow. You can think of these sort of like stellar burps, only with radiation that would kill any living thing.

That barred spiral galaxy is a glowing gorgeous blue, but it’s not what we are here to see. Take a look above the galaxy—all those smudges of glowing orange light are galaxies as well. This cluster is a feature called SDSS J0333+0651. Scientists study galaxy clusters like these to understand the early universe and star-forming regions. See, looking this far out can be hard, and even Hubble can’t resolve star-forming regions at such distances. That’s where galaxy clusters come in: Their mass is so large that they distort the very fabric of space-time, bending the light of objects behind them. That arc of bluish light highlights the brighter star-forming region of that galaxy, otherwise invisible to us without SDSS J0333+0651 doing all the heavy lifting of, you know, bending space.

At 55 million light years from Earth, there lives an unusual galaxy known as NGC 5643. This remarkable image combines data from the Alma observatory in Chile with the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope. NGC 5643 is a Seyfert galaxy; these types have very luminous centers, and scientists think what causes this brightness is a supermassive black hole at the center that sucks up material. These interactions cause dust and gas to move around creating a nebulous looking galaxy, unique among most others in the universe.

This is a close-up of Saturn’s moon Enceladus, also called the geyser moon. The Cassini spacecraft took this photo in 2009 and actually flew through one of those plumes! Enceladus is an icy moon with water below its crust, regularly spewing out ice, water vapor, and organic compounds. Here, sunlight illuminates these eruptions as they break through the frozen surface. Someday scientists hope to launch a mission to study Enceladus and find out if life might lurk below its icy crust.

How to Install Latest GIMP 2.10 in Ubuntu

GIMP (in full GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free open source, powerful, and cross-platform image manipulation software that runs on GNU/Linux, OS X, Windows plus many other operating systems.

It is highly customizable and extensible via third party plugins. It offers advanced tools for graphic designers, photographers, graphical illustrators as well as scientists for high quality image manipulation.

For programmers, it also supports scripted image manipulation, with multiple programming languages such as C, C++, Perl, Python, Scheme, and so much more. The latest major release of GIMP is version 2.10 which was released a few weeks ago, and there is a recent update release GIMP 2.10.2.

What’s New in GIMP 2.10

Some of the important new highlights of this release are:

  • Ships in with a number of new and improved tools such as the Warp transform, the Unified transform and the Handle transform tools.
  • Color management has become a core feature.
  • Improvements to histogram computation.
  • Added support for HEIF image format.
  • Image processing almost completely ported to GEGL.
  • Uses on-canvas preview for all filters ported to GEGL.
  • Improved digital painting with support for functions such as canvas rotation and flipping, symmetry painting, MyPaint brush.
  • Support for several new image formats such as OpenEXR, RGBE, WebP, and HGT.
  • Supports metadata viewing and editing for Exif, XMP, IPTC, and DICOM.
  • Offers basic HiDPI support.
  • Comes with some fresh themes:Light, Gray, Dark, and System and symbolic icons.
  • Added two new filters: spherize and recursive transform, and more.

If you want to know more about GIMP 2.10 features in detail, please refer to its release note.

Install GIMP 2.10 in Ubuntu & Linux Mint

You can install or update Gimp on Ubuntu and Linux Mint using one of the following methods.

Install Gimp Using PPA

The developer Otto Kesselgulasch maintains a unofficial PPA, which has the latest version of the Gimp program for you to install on Ubuntu 17.10 and 18.04 (16.04 builds are said to be on the way), .

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:otto-kesselgulasch/gimp
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install gimp

The above PPA will install or upgrade (if you already have GIMP 2.8) to GIMP 2.10.

Install Gimp Using Flatpak

This is the most recommended way to install GIMP 2.10 on Ubuntu, Linux Mint and other Ubuntu-based Linux distributions by using the official Flatpak app on the Flathub app store.

If you don’t have support for Flatpak, then you need to enable Flatpak support first using the following commands.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:alexlarsson/flatpak
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install flatpak

Once you have Fltapak support, use the following command to install GIMP 2.10.

$ flatpak install

Once Gimp installed, if you don’t see it in the menu, you can start it using the following command.

$ flatpak run org.gimp.GIMP
Install Gimp on Ubuntu

Install Gimp on Ubuntu

Uninstall GIMP 2.10 in Ubuntu & Linux Mint

For any reasons, if you don’t like GIMP 2.10 and want to uninstall or roll back to old stable version. To accomplish this, you need the ppa-purge program to purge the PPA from your system using following commands.

$ sudo apt install ppa-purge
$ sudo ppa-purge ppa:otto-kesselgulasch/gimp

That’s all! In this article, we have explained how to install latest version of GIMP 2.10 in Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Ubuntu-based Linux distributions. If you have any questions, let us know via the feedback form below.

How to Rebuild Corrupted RPM Database in CentOS

The RPM database is made up of files under the /var/lib/rpm/ directory in CentOS and other enterprise Linux distributions such as RHEL, openSUSE, Oracle Linux and more.

If the RPM database is corrupted, RPM will not work correctly, thus updates cannot be applied to your system, you encounter errors while updating packages on your system via YUM package manager. The worst case scenario is being unable to run any rpm and yum commands successfully.

Read Also: 20 Practical Examples of RPM Command in Linux

There are a number of factors that can lead to the RPM database corruption, such as incomplete previous transactions, installation of certain third-party software, removing specific packages, and many others.

In this article, we will show how to rebuild a corrupted RPM database; this way you can recover from an RPM database corruption in CentOS. This requires root user privileges, otherwise, use the sudo command to gain those privileges.

Rebuild Corrupted RPM Database in CentOS

First start by backing up your current RPM database before proceeding (you might need it in the future), using the following commands.

# mkdir /backups/
# tar -zcvf /backups/rpmdb-$(date +"%d%m%Y").tar.gz /var/lib/rpm
Backup RPM Database

Backup RPM Database

Next, verify the integrity of the master package metadata file /var/lib/rpm/Packages; this is the file that needs rebuilding, but first remove /var/lib/rpm/__db* files to prevent stale locks using following commands.

# rm -f /var/lib/rpm/__db* # /usr/lib/rpm/rpmdb_verify /var/lib/rpm/Packages
Verify RPM Database

Verify RPM Database

In case the above operation fails, meaning you still encounter errors, then you should dump and load a new database. Also verify the integrity of the freshly loaded Packages file as follows.

# cd /var/lib/rpm/
# mv Packages Packages.back
# /usr/lib/rpm/rpmdb_dump Packages.back | /usr/lib/rpm/rpmdb_load Packages
# /usr/lib/rpm/rpmdb_verify Packages
Dump and Load RPM Database

Dump and Load RPM Database

Now to check the database headers, query all installed packages using the -q and -a flags, and try to carefully observe any error(s) sent to the stderror.

# rpm -qa >/dev/null #output is discarded to enable printing of errors only

Last but not least, rebuild the RPM database using the following command, the -vv option allows for displaying lots of debugging information.

# rpm -vv --rebuilddb
Rebuild RPM Database

Rebuild RPM Database

Use dcrpm Tool to Detect and Correct RPM Database

We also discovered the dcrpm (detect and correct rpm) command line tool used to identify and correct well known issues to do with RPM database corruption. It is a simple and easy-to-use tool which you can run without option. For effective and reliable usage, you should run it regularly via cron.

You can install it from source; download the source tree and install it using (which should grab the psutil dependency from pypi as well), as shown.

# git clone
# cd dcrpm
# python install

Once you have installed dcrpm, run it as shown.

# dcrpm

Finally, try to run your failed rpm or yum command again to see if everything is working fine.

dcrpm Github repository:
You can find more information from RPM database recovery page.

That’s all! In this article, we have explained how to rebuild a corrupted RPM database in CentOS. To ask any questions or share your thoughts about this guide, use the feedback form below.

How to Install Apache Web Server on Ubuntu 18.04

The Apache HTTP server is a free, open source, powerful, stable, reliable and most widely-used cross-platform web server, which runs on Unix-like systems such as Linux and Windows operating systems. It offers many strong features containing dynamically loadable modules, powerful media support, and immense integration with other popular software. It also works as a reverse proxy for other servers, for example application servers such as Nodejs, Python and more.

In this article, we will explain how to install an Apache web server on Ubuntu 18.04. We will also look at how to manage the Apache service via systemd and create virtual hosts for setting up websites.

Step 1: Installing Apache on Ubuntu 18.04

1. Apache is available from the official Ubuntu software repositories, first start by updating your system’s package index and then install Apache package as well as dependencies using the APT package manager.

$ sudo apt update $ sudo apt install apache2

Once you have successfully installed Apache web server, take a note of these Apache important default files and directories.

  • Main config files directory: /etc/apache2/.
  • Main config file: /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.
  • Additional configuration snippets: /etc/apache2/conf-available/ and /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/.
  • Per-site virtual hosts configuration snippets: /etc/apache2/sites-available/ and /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/.
  • Configuration snippets for loading modules: /etc/apache2/mods-available/ and /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/.
  • Web DocumentRoot: /var/www/html/.
  • Log files(error and access logs) directory: /var/log/apache/.

2. After the Apache installation process, the web server service should be started automatically, you can check if it is up and running with the following command.

$ sudo systemctl status apache2
Check Apache Service in Ubuntu

Check Apache Service in Ubuntu

3. Now that your Apache web server up and running, let’s go over some basic management commands to manage the Apache service using these following commands.

$ sudo systemctl status apache2
$ sudo systemctl stop apache2
$ sudo systemctl start apache2
$ sudo systemctl restart apache2
$ sudo systemctl reload apache2
$ sudo systemctl enable apache2
$ sudo systemctl disable apache2

4. Next, if you have the UFW firewall enabled and running on your system, you need to open the ports 80 and 443 to allow client requests to Apache web server via HTTP and HTTPS respectively, then reload the firewall settings using following commands.

$ sudo ufw allow 80/tcp
$ sudo ufw allow 443/tcp
$ sudo ufw reload

Step 2: Checking Apache Web Server on Ubuntu 18.04

5. Now test if your Apache2 installation is working well; open a web browser and enter the following URL to access the Apache default web page.


If you see this page, it means your Apache web server is working fine. It also shows some basic information about important Apache configuration files and directory locations.

Check Apache Web Page

Check Apache Web Page

Note: If you want to use a dummy domain name such as tecmint.local, which is not a fully registered domain, you can setup a local DNS using the /etc/hosts file on the machine where you will access the Apache default web page.

$ sudo vim /etc/hosts

Then add the following line at the bottom of the file, make sure to replace and tecmint.local with your server’s IP address and local domain name. tecmint.local 

Step 3: Setting Up Apache Virtual Hosts on Ubuntu 18.04

6. Next, we will explain how to create virtual hosts in Apache HTTP server (similar to Nginx server blocks) for your websites. For example, if you have a site called that you want to host on your VPS using Apache, you need to create a virtual host for it under /etc/apache2/sites-available/.

First start by creating your document root directory for your domain, where your site’s files will be stored.

$ sudo mkdir -p /var/www/html/

7. Then set the appropriate permissions on the directory as shown.

$ sudo chmod -R 775 /var/www/html/
$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/

8. Next, create a test html index page for your site in the root directory of your website.

$ sudo vim /var/www/html/

Inside, add the following sample HTML code.

<title>Welcome to!</title>
<h1>The virtual host is working!</h1>

Save and close the file when you are finished.

9. Now create a virtual host file for your site under /etc/apache2/sites-available/ directory.

$ sudo vim /etc/apache2/sites-available/ 

Paste in the following configuration directive, which is similar to the default, but updated with new new directory and domain name.

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin [email protected]
DocumentRoot /var/www/html/
ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/example.com_error.log
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/example.com_access.log combined

Save and close the file when you are finished.

10. Now enable your site configuration using the a2ensite utility.

$ sudo a2ensite

11. Next, test your Apache2 config for any errors, if all is Ok, restart the apache2 service, as shown.

$ sudo apache2ctl configtest
$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

12. Since the domain name is a dummy domain (not a fully registered domain), you also need to setup local DNS by adding it the /etc/hosts file.

$ sudo vim /etc/hosts

Then add the following line at the bottom of the file, make sure to replace and with your server’s IP address and local domain name.

Save the file and exit.

13. Finally open a web browser and access the test site’s index pages using the following URLs, as shown in the screenshot.
Test VirtualHost Website

Test VirtualHost Website

That’s it! In this article, we have explained how to install Apache web server on Ubuntu 18.04. We also looked at how to manage the Aapche2 process via systemd, and create and enable per-site virtual host configurations. If you have any queries, use the comment form below to contact us.

20+20 Free/Premium Feminine WordPress Themes for Fashion & Mom Blog

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Girly Feminine WordPress themes for your blog

The popularity of feminine websites and blogs will never fade – in fact, it grows stronger and stronger as time passes. Fashion blogs, girly websites and mom/mummy blogs and pages will remain in the spotlight for as long as the web exists – that’s why the choice of your feminine WordPress theme is essential.

However, the expectations and demands of the audience change over time. That’s why it’s vital to know what you’ve got to take care of to launch a successful fashion or mummy blog.


In this article, we’ll guide you through the process of launching your new website with the greatest tips and tricks to create your feminine blog. The most important decision you’re going to have to make is this: choosing the right design for your blog.

For this reason, besides the tips and tricks, this post on CollectiveRay will showcase 20 premium and 20 free feminine WordPress themes which are excellent candidates for giving your “baby” a stunning look and feel.

Tip #1: Choose Your Style of Feminine Blog

There are so many ways you can give your blogging a unique and recognizable personality. You can go for the tried-and-tested classic pastel designs for feminine websites or opt for a more lush and luxurious, elegant approach. The only thing that matters is that the chosen blogging design should match your ideal vision of what you want to create and, of course, and ultimately, your own personality.

Let’s share some free and premium blog design ideas, so that you know how you can get started. Along with the tips, we’ll present you the most appealing WordPress templates for fashion blogs, lifestyle blogs and mummy/mom websites.

Minimalism is always in

Less is always more – that’s why minimalism will always be in. If you want to take good care of your website guests, go for feminine templates with uncluttered, minimal UIs. Such designs take great care that your user’s UX on your website is in line with the latest web design trends.

1. Olsen Light: Free Fashion & Lifestyle Blogging Theme

Olsen Light
Olsen Light

Details | Demo

Olsen Light is a stunning free design to establish your new web presence. The minimalist design of it features magazine-inspired layouts, an unobtrusive color palette with the shades of gray for text, and charming handwritten fonts.

This translation-ready product brings you a bunch of custom widgets, extended options and social media possibilities. Being Elementor and Divi Builder compatible, Olsen is ready to be modified with simple drag-n-drop in order to make blogging process as trouble-free as possible.

2. Neverland: Free Personal Blog WordPress Template


Details | Demo

The creators of Neverland blogging template know all the ins and outs of modern web design. That’s why they managed to create a usable minimalist blog template and deliver it to you free of charge.

Working with Neverland, you’ll be thrilled with having an ample set of post types to take advantage of, as well as at having all the options you need handy within the Customizer.

3. MaryKate: Free Minimal Feminine WordPress Design

Free Feminine WordPress Theme – The Mary Kate
Free Feminine WordPress Theme – The Mary Kate

Details | Demo

The pure white aesthetics of MaryKate make your personal/lifestyle website unobtrusive and fresh. This free girly theme comes pre-packed with well-established WordPress plugins, such as Jetpack, Pinterest RSS and more.

What’s more, you can freely switch between fullwidth page template and the one with a sidebar. All in all, with MaryKate, you get a chance to give readers a glimpse into your world and further extend your popularity online.

Girly Blogging Designs

For some of you, minimalist style may feel too impersonal and unrelatable. Unicorns and millennial pink are the latest craze, so you can jump on this trend and go for a girly blog design. Some examples are found below:

4. Roseworld Lifestyle Blog WordPress Template


Details | Demo

Roseworld is the latest incarnation of a charming girly blog design, adorned in trendy shades of millennial pink. This design brings you a cornucopia of ready-made page designs and layouts to please every taste.

This premium theme is Elementor ready and features a number of bonus add-ons, such as JetElements and JetBlog plugins. That’s why it lets you run your site in visual mode and frees you from ever editing a single code string.

5. Blossom Feminine WordPress Template


Details | Demo

Blossom is a leading item among free girly WordPress themes thanks to its enchanting new-gen look. You’ll be more than engrossed with the template’s spacious fullscreen slider and catchy top banners.

What’s more Blossom brings you a number of styling, font choice and coloring options to let you craft a unique online presence that pleases your inner self – and more importantly, your eventual readers.

6. Elegant Pink: Free Responsive WordPress Site Design

Elegant Pink WordPress Theme
Elegant Pink WordPress Theme

Details | Demo

Permeated with the sweet nostalgia for childhood, Elegant Pink is a masonry-based girly WordPress template that’s ideal for building a lifestyle or mom blogging site. The theme features multiple post formats, custom menus, footers, sliders and Customizer options to create a visually appealing website.

Elegant Pink uses masonry to place elements on your pages in the optimal position based on the available space. Moreover, the template employs Infinite Scroll to provide for scrolling experience akin to the one popularized by Pinterest and Instagram.

Elegant and Luxurious

This style is well-embraced by fashion bloggers/creators as it allows you to capture new audiences with mesmerizing visuals. With elegant and luxurious feminine templates, it’s all about style and intricate color play that glue new site guests to your website and turn exploring it into an awe-inspiring journey.

7. Kustrix: Style Blog WordPress Website


Details | Demo

Embrace Kustrix and your style and fashion expertise would go without saying. Its trendy fonts, negative space and fullscreen backgrounds foster unquestionable visual beauty to turn each of your posts into a masterpiece.

What’s more, this premium product is distributed under the nonrestrictive GPLv3 license that lets you use it on as many websites as you wish after purchase.

8. Covers: Photographer/Fashion Blog WordPress Site Design


Details | Demo

The riveting Covers template is designed to immerse site guests into your world and keep them hooked and coming back for me. It opens with a tantalizing fullscreen slider, each slide of which is an accomplished piece of art.

With such an impressive landing, the template leads site guests on to other pages of your site with a neat hamburger menu button situated on the top right. This design is an epitome of visual luxury, and it’s bound to get your sense of style and momentum noticed.

9. Fashy: Fashion Blogging WordPress Template


Details | Demo

This black-and-white fashion blogging template has a sleek and dynamic design that screams the notions of style and elegance. For an enhanced presentation of your site’s content, the template lets you choose your favorite among 6 pre-built demos and use it for your website.

Moreover, the template brings you trendsetting double-exposure image, film-strip slider, dark and light skins, magazine skin and much more, thus fostering the enhanced visual awe.

Retro Flair

Embracing a retro design is a smart way to get your musings read and followed on a regular basis, and for good reason. Retro design elements have a magical command over the ambiance and overall feel of your website, making it ultimately comfy and fine-tuned.

Do not hesitate to embrace this kind of design if you’re serious about producing any kind of thought-invoking content that needs be digested to the full.

10. Geraldine: Vintage Fashion Blogging WordPress Theme


Details | Demo

Use this vintage template, and it’ll take your blogging up a notch within the shortest span of time. Geraldine’s layouts and design elements are polished to perfection to create a matchless pleasure-to-read presence.

Thanks to the prolific compendium of custom content blocks and Live Customizer, with Geraldine you’re by no means restricted by design limitations in coining the web presence of your most perfect dreams.

11. Laura: A Feminine WordPress Template

Laura - A Feminine Blog WordPress Theme
Laura - A Feminine Blog WordPress Theme

Details | Demo

Laura is one of the most charming and variegated feminine WordPress templates. It serves your site with 6 pre-made demos that you can install with a simple click of a button. You can use a classic modern, grid, boxed, full-width, magazine or minimal beauty layout.

All of the retro designs are made for readability with new-gen feminine fonts and diverse color choices.

12. Camila: Minimal Blog WordPress Design


Details | Demo

Camila is a retrospective magazine-style template with an impressive post slider above the fold. It would be a great fit to blogging about your hobby or area of interest, especially if this is something connected with art and culture.

The template’s homepage is jazzed-up with Parallax effect that adds extra zest and magnetism to the imagery you feature. Moreover, the template comes with a newsletter subscription box to help you engage readers on a regular basis.

13. Handmade Artist Personal WordPress Design

Handmade Artist
Handmade Artist

Details | Demo

This neat design would be ideal for all sorts of creatives as it fosters a highly usable user interface that lets you present your handmade items with flying colors. On top of ready-made blocks for multiple content types, you get a chance to turn your website into an Ecwid e-store within a few minutes, because the style just asks for it.

Nature Lover

This style of feminine bloggers would be great for lifestyle and travel. The items in this category of designs are clean, fresh and breathing designs that are great for free-spirited bloggers. Let’s see some samples:

14. Sprout: Personal Blog WP Theme


Details | Demo

Sprout is a responsive and cross-browser compatible product. It lets you create a fresh website that’s a true pleasure to browse. The template brings you custom widgets that have been developed with the needs of modern bloggers in mind, e.g. Author Widget, Social Widget, Post Widget, Featured Post Widget, etc.

What’s more, this highly adjustable product comes with a pre-built color picker tool that lets you choose colors without having to bother about their HEX values.

15. Activello: Simple Multipurpose Blogging Template

Activello – Simple Multipurpose Blog Theme
Activello – Simple Multipurpose Blog Theme

Details | Demo

Activello is another nature-inspired blog design that’s all the rage. Activello was developed using Bootstrap frontend framework that makes it fully responsive and mobile friendly.

What’s more, it’s optimized to work with a number of popular WordPress plugins, such as WooCommerce, W3 Total Cache, Contact Form 7, Gravity Forms, Jetpack, Yoast SEO and many others, making extending the functionality of your website in the future as simple as ABC.

16. Freyja: Modern WordPress Theme For Feminine Blogs

Freyja - Modern Design For Bloggers
Freyja - Modern Design For Bloggers

Details | Demo

If you’re after Scandinavian nature and lifestyle, Freyja will get your website all shining. Freyja brings you clean asymmetrical layouts featuring extra-large imagery, post masonries and image grids.

The template brings you a number of header options for your website, as well as for its category pages and posts. As a nice extra, you can easily power an e-store on your website thanks to trouble-free integration of Freyja with WooCommerce.

Tip #2: Engage Right Above The Fold

No matter what kind of blogging website you want to power, it’s important that you actively engage users right after they arrive to your website. In fact, this can be achieved in a number of ways.

For example, you can introduce yourself right away with a memorable statement or use an eye-catching hero image that makes guests eager to explore further. Let’s see how you can your site visitors to scroll down to the rest of your content, in practical examples using designs which achieve this.

Make an Impact

17. Audrey


Details | Demo

The design of Audrey breaks the established norms of the niche and takes the website browsing experience of your site guests to new heights and unexpected awesomeness. On top of conventional header lineup that is enhanced with your photograph for authenticity, the only thing users find above the fold is a box with a featured post that immediately grasps attention with its styling and prompts to share the post in social networks.

Such an unconventional entry makes many eager to learn more.

As soon as users scroll just a bit, they’re captivated with 6 post panels that smoothly spread out from the right. The rest of the homepage is also sprinkled with micro-interactions to keep the engagement rate at a pleasingly high level.

18. Scarllet: Free Fashion & Beauty WordPress Website


Details | Demo

If you browse through free feminine WordPress themes, it would be Scarlett template that makes a perfect example of an engaging above-the-fold design. There you’ll see a bold large-sized slider section filled with not less bold images and captions.

Everything is big, clean and statement-making, making Scarlet a great example of how a well-done combination of minimalism and artistic mastery can make a sound web presence that sticks to users’ minds.

19. Hanna: Beautiful Blogging & Magazine WP Theme


Details | Demo

Mixing things around a fair bit, e.g. decreasing hero image height and shifting the top navigation below may be a genial step to break the monotony and show that your website’s got something new to tell. That’s just what Hanna girly blog theme does for you to get every newcomer of your website converted to an adept reader of your site.

We’ve got to mention that this template brings you not one, but 8 hilarious home demos, as well as one-size-fits-all social media integration that’s bound to drive your articles to prominence.

Tip #3: Capitalize on Integrating Instagram and Other Networks

If you’re a fashion or mom blogger, plentiful schools of your audience lurk in social media, such as Instagram, Pinterest and other platforms.

You’ve got to connect with them, and your website’s got to help you with this essential aspect.

For you, going for social media buttons only may not be enough. Consider incorporating custom social media widgets to your site’s sidebar and main page areas. For instance, you may display selected posts or a feed of your recent posts.

Visualizing your awesomeness is what gets you new subscribers most effectively.

Show Social Networks Prominently

20. Trendomania: Style Blog WP Site Design


Details | Demo

Trendomania is one of the best-selling style blog designs that brings your social media accounts to the foreground.

Users will unmistakenly locate an ample set of social integration buttons in the site’s header both on PCs and mobile screens. Trendomania theme features an Instagram feed block with extra-large image thumbnails above the footer, which is extremely hard to miss.

That’s why it’s not hard to guess that with this template your followers count is bound to grow steadily.

21. Vogue Free Theme

Vogue - WordPress Theme
Vogue - WordPress Theme

Details | Demo

Embracing the classics of fashion blog design, Vogue brings you enhanced social media integration at no cost at all.

Once you enable social integration in the admin dashboard and provide relevant links, you’ll see a noticeable social sharing bar within the site’s header. You can also turn on social share buttons panel on the right of every post to ensure that site guests find the way to spread your awesome content in next to no time.

22. Mamita: Pregnancy & Maternity Blog WordPress Template

Mamita – Pregnancy & Maternity Blog
Mamita – Pregnancy & Maternity Blog

Details | Demo

Mamita is a to-go solution for mom bloggers with its charming and clean design and impressive ease of customization. The design unobtrusively features social buttons next to your site’s logo, accompanying them with the CTAs to subscribe or follow you on social networks.

Sometimes it’s just the CTA that you’re missing to get the most of social integration, simple as that!

Tip #4: Supreme SEO Is What Gets You Found

Businesses invest heavily in SEO optimization to get their websites found by users from all over the web. If you run a blog on your own, you might not be ready to invest that heavily. However, you’ve still got to take good care of optimizing your site for search engines to be discovered on search results pages.

What can you do? There’s a number of things to consider:

  • Firstly, you’ve got to make sure that your website is user-friendly. It should be easy to navigate your website and find the information needed.
  • Secondly, checking regularly for broken links is necessary to get your SEO on track. A couple of free tools do a great job in this regard:
  • Thirdly, you’ve got to regularly update your blog with new posts. Posting regularly shows Google and other search engines that you’re pretty serious about this all.
  • Next, you’d better compose and post insightful long-reads from time to time.
  • What’s more, you should go for interlinking the content of your website, to make sure that search engines, as well as your readers, get it all covered. Here is a couple of free tools to check internal links on your website:

In order not to spend a lot of extra time on SEO optimization when your site goes live, it’s a good idea to go for pretty WordPress themes that are already optimized for SEO. The navigation and content structure of such templates are polished to perfection so that you can simply stick to them and get the most out of your site’s SEO.

SEO-optimized feminine templates give you lots of ways to work with post metadata to enhance your site’s exposure on SERPs. Let’s see a couple of examples:

23. Trendy: Fashion Blogging WordPress Template

Fashion Blogging WordPress Theme with Trendy Design
Fashion Blogging WordPress Theme with Trendy Design

Details | Demo

Clean design and relatable imagery are not the only draws of this stylish WordPress theme for girly websites. T

his premium template is built with high-quality sleek coding and optimized for SEO by experts. This responsive template can be customized live thanks to WordPress Customizer. This product brings you an impressive set of modules, widgets and plugins that all enhance the UI and UX of your web presence.

24. Happyones Blog Theme


Details | Demo

Intuitive design and stylish look of this WordPress theme will make you a happy owner of a well-liked blog. Adjusting the look and feel is simple with Elementor and Live Customizer.

Moreover, you can turn this template into a boisterous online shop with 5-mins Ecwid integration. SEO options of Happyones are next to exemplary, ensuring that your website meets the most recent guidelines of search engines.

25. xPression: Minimal Blog Template

xPression - Minimal
xPression - Minimal

Details | Demo

xPression is a great fit for travel bloggers, fashion bloggers and personal bloggers, as well as for solopreneurs who are planning to launch a brand new site.

The product’s developers know coding and SEO-optimization inside-out. Developing xPression, they did their best to ensure full compliance with the ranking algorithms of Google, Bing and Yahoo.

Tip #5: Be Responsive For Your Audience On The Go

Many bloggers use handheld devices to have fun reading articles. You shouldn’t disappoint them. You need a fully responsive website that adapts to different screen resolution and delivers information with equal effectiveness on small (mobile), medium (tablet) and large (PC) screens. Another good reason to care about responsiveness is the fact that Google now ranks the websites that are not responsive lower in search results.

It’s the template you use that determines whether your site is responsive or not.

That’s why you’ve got to choose the one that sticks to Bootstrap grid and adapts to viewport changes just seamlessly. If you make a good choice, you’ll have to try hard to break the responsive design you have. Let’s see a few examples:

26. Catwalk: Fashion Modeling Agency WordPress Template

Catwalk - Fashion Modeling Agency Responsive WordPress Theme
Catwalk - Fashion Modeling Agency Responsive WordPress Theme

Details | Demo

Catwalk is the template for those who want to make a statement in the fashion world. If you’re among them, join on with this ultimately responsive features. The catwalk’s pixel-perfect UI adapts to any screen it’s viewed on and delivers its functionality in an equally smooth manner.

27. Rara: Free Feminine Blogging WordPress Theme


Details | Demo

With Rara, you can get premium responsiveness without having to spend a buck.

This beautifully designed item has completely fluid and responsive design that adapts to various screen sizes and makes it look stunning on every device. Moreover, Rara comes with several features to make your website user-friendly, interactive and visually stunning.

28. One Blog Free WP Design


Details | Demo

Take your blogging endeavors to new heights with this fully responsive, timeless design. It opens with the Scroll Motion Slider that displays all sparkling in a plethora of viewports. All in all, One Blog gives you full power to customize your site and visually impress your audience.

Tip #6: Be Creative with The Grid

Sticking to grid structure is everything to ensure your site’s sleek look and responsiveness. At the same time, experimenting with the grid and new-gen layouts is a tried-and-tested way to get your web presence noticed and remembered.

Why don’t you feature creative layouts on your website and get your website guests excited by this?

To go for a creative grid, you don’t have to master Bootstrap or HTML coding. You can simply go for woman themes with unconventional layouts. It’s even better if the design of your choice is enhanced with a visual builder such as Divi. In this case, you can create a unique website layout with simple drag-n-drop.

29. Fashion Grid WebSite Design

Fashion Grid WordPress Theme
Fashion Grid WordPress Theme

Details | Demo

The one-of-a-kind layout of Fashion Grid theme is just stunning. It lets you catch readers with a captionless gallery of best shots right on the homepage. The appeal of the item is enhanced by sticking to newspaper style, which ensures supreme readability of your content with eye-friendly fonts and abundance of negative space.

30. De Couture: Fancy Fashion & Beauty Blog Theme

De Couture
De Couture

Details | Demo

Go for De Couture is an excellent choice to power a fashion blog website, browsing which is a piece of cake.

This product brings you a supreme set of ready-made layouts, with 5 options for blogging page included: Classic and Single Post Layouts, as well as Masonry, Grid and Justify markups. You can also come up with your own unique layouts in a matter of minutes thanks to Elementor builder that comes on board. JetElements and JetBlog plugin will make this task even simpler.

31. Fusion: WordPress Fashion Blog Template


Details | Demo

Being ultimately stylish is an attainable ambition with Fusion WordPress theme for fashion blogs.

Fusion breaks the standards of website structure to amuse your site guests with a new-age mix of content and imagery.

The template opens with a hero image, that’s followed with a responsive slider and elegant 4-column post grid. Then, the homepage breaks into three asymmetrical columns that get plenty of your posts introduced to help users find what they’re keen on right away.

Tip #7: If You’re a Newbie, Go For a Free Theme

If after reading all these tips and seeing new-gen templates the perspective of investing in your site still feels daunting to you, go for a free template first. You can use it as a launch pad for getting the skills and capabilities needed to run a live blog with a premium template.

In fact, we’ve already showcased a bunch of free options above. However, we’re happy to offer you some other hand-picked free fashion themes from all over the web. Here you go:

32. Juliet: Gorgeous Free Blogging WordPress Theme

Olsen Light - Free fashion/lifestyle blogging theme
Olsen Light - Free fashion/lifestyle blogging theme

Details | Demo

It’s hard to tell the free Juliet theme from premium templates as it has everything you need to run a personal or lifestyle blog. Juliet comes with two skins: a classic feminine one, and another one with a more contemporary minimalist look.

33. Brigsby Free Responsive WordPress Template


Details | Demo

This cozy free download lets you get started with your first independently hosted blog with flying colors. The template is lightweight and will please your readers by loading and responding in the blink of an eye.

34. Today: Magazine & Blog Free WP Site Design


Details | Demo

Today is a classy magazine and blog WordPress theme that delivers you a design of supreme quality free of charge.

The product is super-fast, unbloated and coded to the highest WordPress standards. Moreover, Today has a couple advertisement spots (header/footer/sidebar) that you can use to monetize your website later on.

35. Anissa: Free Beautiful WordPress Site Design


Details | Demo

Elegant typography and post styling put Anissa in the first row of free feminine WordPress themes. This template is fully responsive and performs equally well in all modern browsers on PC as well as on handheld devices.

36. Sugar and Spice Free WordPress Theme


Details | Demo

Soft and comforting, Sugar and Spice would be a perfect match for an innocent and graceful personal blog. It lets you upload your own logo and favicon, customize colors and backgrounds, choose between three layout options and more.

37. Cenote: Free WordPress Blog Template


Details | Demo

Cenote free theme features a modern spacious grid layout with 4+ widget areas and sticky navigation on board. The template is translation ready, so you can post content in several languages to engage a wider audience in next to no time.

38. Flash Free WordPress Website Design


Details | Demo

Flash has everything you need for successful blogging on any and every topic on the platen Earth. Download it for free, and you can update to the premium version of this template any time you feel you need more features.

39. Adelle Free WordPress Theme


Details | Demo

Adelle is a classic feminine blogging theme that will get you started with running a site in no time. You can use this lightweight template free of charge to make an entry into the world of online blogging.

40. Blaskan: Free Simple WordPress Blog Theme


Details | Demo

Blaskan layout is daringly simple, spacious and minimalist. This is a design to create a trendy and fast-loading website for fashion and lifestyle bloggers.

Wrapping Up

Running a fashion or mom blog is not rocket science. Make a good feminine WordPress template choice that matches your personal vision, follow the tips we’ve listed, and you’ll get a juggernaut web presence that drives new readers in day after day. We wish you good luck in this!

Please share your thoughts in the Comments section. We’d love to hear what you think!

Stay tuned for more!

WP Security Audit Log: How to Audit Access Logs + secure WordPress

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WP security audit log plugin

Without a doubt, website security is (or should be) one of the greatest concerns for any WordPress administrator. While WordPress security continues to evolve, it is essential to keep monitoring and testing the security measures you’ve put in place to identify any loopholes or places that need improvement. With the right tools, you can continuously audit all activities on your site to nip any security threats in the bud. But how can you be aware of what’s going in on your website? That’s where the WP Security Audit Log plugin can play a major role to improve your site’s security. 

This review article will focus on the WP Security Audit Log plugin, a WordPress activity log plugin, and how we think it can continuously help you improve the security and robustness of your WordPress websites and multisite networks.

What is WP Security Audit Log?

WP Security Audit Log is a WordPress plugin that tracks and logs all activities that happen in your site’s WordPress admin area (but not only) to help you detect any odd or suspicious behavior before it can become a real security threat to your site. 

Essentially, this plugin monitors and records all user activity such as changes made to content, themes, plugins, widgets, user accounts and their passwords and any WordPress settings.

In essence, it is a complete WordPress activity log or audit trail of what is happening on your site. Besides being able to track any suspicious behaviour, (for example a compromised user), you can also track any malicious employee behaviour.

For example, if you manage a large website with a large number of authors contributing to the site, you need to make sure you have a full track of what they are actually doing.

This is because, even though you may actually trust the users, they still might eventually turn malicious, performing unauthorized changes, whether with the specific intent to cause harm, and even “by mistake”.

Audit log viewer

Audit log viewer


WP Security Audit Log was developed by WP White Security, founded by Robert Abela. The plugin is available in two editions; free and Premium. All the logging functionality is available in the free version of the plugin, which can be downloaded from the official WordPress plugin repository.

The Premium edition has a number of useful and advanced features which help the website owners and / or administrator build a complete WordPress activity log solution that enables them to remain on the ball. One such feature is email notifications – which immediately sends an email if a specified event occurs on the website.

Such features are essential for websites which are monitored and managed by NOCs who typically need to be alerted of specific issues, so that they can take corrective action quickly.

Visit plugin website now

How to set up the WP Security Audit Log plugin

The installation and set-up of the plugin is very straight-forward – once you install the plugin, a new menu item with the name Audit Log appears on your WordPress dashboard.

The menu has a few options pages, but we’ll focus mostly on the three main ones:

  1. Settings,
  2. Audit Log Viewer and
  3. Enable/Disable Alerts

The WP Security Audit Log Plugin Settings

The settings page allows you to modify and customize the plugin to fit your specific needs and preferences.

This is necessary since the plugin is able to keep a log of a lot of changes, and unless you want to be overwhelmed with events in the log, you’ll want to enable the logging of the events which interest you.

Let’s have a look at some of the customization options:

Enable / Disable Alerts

There are nearly 400 different type of events that the plugin can keep a log of, which are arranged in different categories for easier navigation. By default, all alerts are enabled but two – logging of 404 alerts and posting of comments. This particular page will let you pick the specific alerts you want to track.

Enable disable alerts

Enable disable alerts


Alerts widget

This option allows you to add an alerts widget to your WordPress dashboard. The widget will show you the 5 latest security alerts. This is neat because if you do not monitor the log viewer all the time, you will immediately be alerted to any high-risk events which occurred when you log to your website’s admin.

Latest alerts dashboard widget

Latest alerts dashboard widget

User control (Can Manage Plugin)

You can determine who can view the WordPress security audit log and who can manage the plugin to ensure that no one can manipulate the logs and settings to hide malicious behavior.

Customize the Audit Log Columns section

You can select which information to display in the audit log viewer screen. By default the following columns can be shown: 

  • Alert ID
  • Type
  • Date
  • Username
  • Source Ip
  • Message  

Hide plugin

If you don’t want anyone else logging into the site to know you’re using a WordPress Audit Log Plugin, you can hide it from the plugin’s page.

This is a very intelligent feature if you ask me. If you are suspecting that somebody in your company is acting maliciously and you want to catch them in the act, you can enable this option.

Other Noteworthy Settings

The WP Security Audit Log plugin also allows you to configure the activity log retention, the timezone used, support for web application firewalls and reverse proxies, exclude users from the log and much more, allowing business website owners to really fine tune their WordPress activity log solution.

Audit Log Viewer

This is the crux of the plugin and where the value of the plugin comes in. 

All alerts arising out of activities on the site will appear on the Audit Log Viewer page. It is where you will spend most of your time.

For every generated alert, the exact time and date of when the activity took place are recorded, and also the user who performed the action together with their assigned role and source IP Address.

Every type of event in the WordPress activity log has a unique event ID assigned to it, which is useful for when you need to search for a specific change or create an email alert for it.

You’ll notice that the security logs contain vast data about activities on your WordPress website. But such data isn’t helpful if you don’t know what to look for (converting the data into information). The following are four key areas of focus to get valuable insights from the WordPress audit log.

1. Identifying unusual WordPress user login activity

Malicious hackers usually target weak passwords. They can take these easy pick issues and use them for their own (nefarious) purposes (whether it’s to build backlinks to their dodgy sites, or install malicious software on your site).

Therefore, you should look out for any abnormal login activity. Check whether anyone is logging in outside office hours. Also, check the IP Addresses that users are logging in with. If all users have a fixed IP Address, check for IP addresses originating from other regions or countries. 

Even in cases where users don’t have a fixed IP address, you can still check for inconsistencies by noting changes in the subnet. Each Internet Service Provider has a limited range of IP addresses, and they usually share the same subnet. 

Any login which looks suspicious needs to be immediately investigated. 

2. Failed login attempts

There are bound to be a few failed login attempts in a day. You shouldn’t be alarmed when you spot a handful of such – because like we said above, you’ll find a that quite a lot of automated scripts (bots) will be hammering at your site to see whether they can find a weak password. 

But if the login attempts are ranging in the hundreds or thousands, especially from different IP addresses, you could be experiencing an attack. If you lack the expertise to deal with it, alert your host for help. But you can also prevent the problem from your end by putting a cap on the number of times a user can unsuccessfully attempt to login into the site using such plugins as Limit Login Attempts.

3. A spike in the number of 404 errors 

404 errors are quite common – especially if you regularly maintain your website and trim any content which you don’t need.

They usually occur when a visitor requests for a page that doesn’t exist on your site. Of course, it’s best to actually 301 redirect old URLs to new or similar content, but if you don’t have any alternatives, best to let the page 404 so that it will be eventually removed from Google and all other references. 

They could be visiting a URL that doesn’t exist or there could be broken links on your site. Whatever the case, a few 404 errors shouldn’t concern you. 

But if you notice the number of such errors rising in an unusual manner, you could be staring at an imminent attack from an automated system. It could also mean that a problem has occurred with the setup of your website and some URLs have been changed and not updated correctly.

Whatever the cause, a spike in 404 errors needs to be looked at. 

4. Changes in user profiles

When a hacker gains access to your WordPress website, their aim is to create certain privileges for themselves to gain accessibility and control. They might create new user accounts, change passwords of existing WordPress users or email addresses, settings, and user roles for other WordPress users. 

They will also probably hide their tracks, either by resetting the password to old values, change users roles to privileged users and then back to their previous role and other changes which wouldn’t happen normally in running a day-to-day website.

While some of these changes may have been affected by the users themselves and shouldn’t be a point of concern. However, if you see changes which are unexpected and can only be made by a WordPress administrator you should investigate.

Benefits of the WP Security Audit Log plugin

While it’s actually going to be difficult to mention all of the benefits of using this WordPress activity log plugin, we’re going to mention some of the highlights which we believe are worth noting:

  • It will track  nearly 400 different actions (and the list is ever growing)
  • It supports both multisite and single WordPress installs
  • It allows you to pick specific alerts that are important to you rather than letting you sift through a long list.
  • It comes with free support offered through the support forums. The developer is quite active on the platform and support is also provided via email.

Different WP Security Audit Log Premium Editions

At this point, we’d like to mention a few of the highlights of the paid edition of the plugin. Besides the free version, there are three different paid versions of the premium plugin:

  • Starter ($89)
  • Professional ($99)
  • Business ($199)

Visit Pricing page for details

Starter Edition

The Starter edition is the first upgrade from the free version of WP Security Audit Log. The two key features of this version are the Email Notifications and the Search and filters.

The WordPress Email notifications allow you to create specific filters which send you an email notification in case any of the alerts happens. This means that anytime a high-risk activity happens you can get an email direct to your inbox.

The beauty of the plugin is that notifications can be built using the built-in wizard in the plugin.

Email notifications wizard

Email notifications wizard

You can also simply pick up a few of the recommended email notifications, which are the typically suspicious activities. Just tick the ones you want to be notified about and enter the email which needs to get notified. 

Again, a beautiful setup which makes it easy to send specific alerts to let’s say your blog editor and other alerts to your security administrator. 

Recommended email security notifications

Recommended email security notifications

Professional Edition

The Professional version is the one which gives you access to ALL features of the WordPress audit log plugin. Once again, there are a number of features which we have to take note of:

1. External database logging and integrations – this feature allows you to store your WordPress activity log in a database which is independent from the actual database of your website. If you are tracking all the activity of a fairly large multisite network, the Audit Security Log database can grow quite a bit.

For this reason, the PRO edition allows you to log all of the information into external databases. This is particularly important if you need to maintain the data generated by the Audit Log viewer for compliance purposes.

Besides logging to an external database, you can also Mirror data or archive data into other sources as per your needs. This is an excellent feature for those who need to ensure they have a backup of their data in case something goes wrong.

2. Users Sessions Management – this is another feature which is nice because it caters for a very particular scenario i.e. users sharing passwords.

Once again, this is a very suspicious activity. It could also be problematic if your website charges users for logging in to your website and users are splitting the cost by sharing the same username and password between different users. 

This feature allows you to put a limit on the number of simultaneous users logging in to your website.

Sessions management

Sessions management

3. WordPress Reports – again this is probably quite important for those users who are using the plugin either for compliance or for specific investigation purposes which will be using 3rd parties. The report feature will allow you to create a fully-parameterized report of the data which has been collected by the WordPress Audit Log Viewer.

Audit log viewer reports

Business Edition

The final paid edition of the WP Security Audit Log plugin is the Business edition. This contains all of the professional features of the plugin, but also comes with a 15 minutes setup and consultation call, priority support and a Personal Success Manager. 

Again, those who need to make sure their setup is right and need the plugin to really make a difference to their site should opt for this version.

Final thoughts 

The WP Security Audit Log plugin is an absolutely great addition to your WordPress blog, particularly if you run a website which is critical to the success of your business and which cannot afford any security lapses.

We have found the features of this WordPress activity log plugin to be very well thought-out and implemented for real business use-cases. It is clear that Robert and his team has years of experience in this field and also taken a lot of user feedback on board to implement exactly what business need out of an activity log plugin. Really and truly, this plugin is clearly a leader in this niche.

Whether you are operating a single or a multi-user website, you should be using this plugin to keep a record and track all activities happening on your site to sniff out any suspicious behavior that could pose a security threat. It is immensely easy to install, setup and use and contains the right combination of features that enable you to focus on specific alerts that are important to you.

Check out WP Security Audit Log Now

Git Version Control series: What can you do with Git Version Control?

This is the second in a series of blog posts around Git and a new feature in version 72, Git Version Control.  See the full list of entries in this series at the end of this post! 

If you follow our feature request site, you already know about our upcoming feature, Git Version Control. We’re designing it to make hosting repositories as easy for developers as a “Hello World!” script — and it’s almost here!

It will let you create and manage repositories and view change history in a friendly interface. A lot of Git’s functionality requires command line knowledge, but don’t worry! It’s easy to learn.  Here’s the rundown of what you can expect.

Clone and Create Repositories

We’re figuring that most of our users will want to clone existing repositories from places like GitHub, but you can use this feature to create new repositories too. Set a repository name, set a repository path, and, if you’re cloning, provide a clone URL — it’s that easy! Create as many as you want as long as you’re under your disk space quotas. If you’ve got SSH access, you can work in these repositories from the command line or in version 72’s new Terminal interface.

Your Changes, Wherever You Want Them

This feature is a great way to push content around without a whole lot of work. You can easily send changes from your local computer or a remotely-hosted repository to the repository hosted on your cPanel account. It’s a no-fuss solution to data management.

Easy Access to Git History

Since we’re shipping with Gitweb integration, you can easily view your repository’s history. We display information about the HEAD commit in the interface, too, so you don’t have to guess where your commit is.

Awesome, right?

If you already use Git, we hope that this feature will knock your socks off! If you don’t, we’re hoping we can help you start! We’re just about finished with the version 72 release of Git Version Control, but we’re planning to expand the features in version 74. Want to be involved in the development process? Set up an EDGE server and start playing with the feature today, then post your ideas, comments, and questions on the feature request site.

A note from benny:

Want to be involved in the development process? Post your ideas, comments, and questions on the feature request. You can also join us in our slack or discord channels, post your questions on the cPanel forums or subreddit, or come visit Houston, Texas for the 2018 cPanel Conference, October 1st – 3rd. Need to catch up on the previous posts about Git Version control? Here they are!

  1. What is Git? 
  2. Introducing the Git Version Control interface
  3. Introducing Gitweb
  4. Setting Up Git
  5. Git Problems and How to Fix Them
  6. Git Version Control: Soon with Automatic Deployment!

10 7zip (File Archive) Command Examples in Linux

7-Zip is a free open source, cross-platform, powerful, and fully-featured file archiver with a high compression ratio, for Windows. It has a powerful command line version that has been ported to Linux/POSIX systems.

It has a high compression ratio in 7z format with LZMA and LZMA2 compression, supports many other archive formats such as XZ, BZIP2, GZIP, TAR, ZIP and WIM for both packing and unpacking; AR, RAR, MBR, EXT, NTFS, FAT, GPT, HFS, ISO, RPM, LZMA, UEFI, Z, and many others for extracting only.

It provides strong AES-256 encryption in 7z and ZIP formats, offers a compression ratio that of 2-10 % for ZIP and GZIP formats (much better than those offered by PKZip and WinZip). It also comes with self-extracting capability for 7z format and it’s localized in up-to 87 languages.

How to Install 7zip in Linux

The port of 7zip on Linux systems is called p7zip, this package comes pre-installed on many mainstream Linux distributions. You need to install the p7zip-full package to get the 7z, 7za, and 7zr CLI utilities on your system, as follows.

Install 7zip on Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint

Debian-based Linux distributions comes with three software packages related to 7zip and they are p7zip, p7zip-full and p7zip-rar. It is suggested to install p7zip-full package, which supports many archive formats.

$ sudo apt-get install p7zip-full

Install 7zip on Fedora or CentOS/RHEL

Red Hat-based Linux distributions comes with two packages related to 7zip and they are p7zip and p7zip-plugins. It is suggested to install both packages.

To install these two packages, you need to enable EPEL repository on CentOS/RHEL distributions. On Fedora, no need to setup additional repository.

$ sudo yum install p7zip p7zip-plugins

Once the 7zip package installed, you can move further to learn some useful 7zip command examples to pack or unpack various types of archives in the following section.

Learn 7zip Command Examples in Linux

1. To create an .7z archive file, use "a" option. The supported archive formats for creation are 7z, XZ, GZIP, TAR, ZIP and BZIP2. If the given archive file exists already, it will “add” the files to an existing archive, instead of overwriting it.

$ 7z a hyper.7z hyper_1.4.2_i386.deb
Create 7z Archive File in Linux

Create 7z Archive File in Linux

2. To extract an .7z archive file, use "e" option, which will extract the archive in the present working directory.

$ 7z e hyper.7z
Extract 7z Archive File in Linux

Extract 7z Archive File in Linux

3. To select an archive format, use -t (format name) option, which will allows you to select the archive format such as zip, gzip, bzip2 or tar (the default is 7z):

$ 7z a -tzip hyper_1.4.2_i386.deb
Create 7z Zip File in Linux

Create 7z Zip File in Linux

4. To see a list of files in an archive, use "l" (list) function, which will displays the type of archive format, method used, files in the archive among other information as shown.

$ 7z l hyper.7z
List 7z File Information

List 7z File Information

5. To test the integrity of an archive file, use "t" (test) function as shown.

$ 7z t hyper.7z
Check 7z File Integrity

Check 7z File Integrity

6. To backup a directory, you should use the 7za utility which preserves owner/group of a file, unlike 7z, the -si option enables reading of files from stdin.

$ tar -cf - tecmint_files | 7za a -si tecmint_files.tar.7z

7. To restore a backup, use -so option, which will sends output to stdout.

$ 7za x -so tecmint_files.tar.7z | tar xf -

8. To set a compression level, use the -mx option as shown.

$ tar -cf - tecmint_files | 7za a -si -mx=9 tecmint_files.tar.7z

9. To update an existing archive file or remove file(s) from an archive file, use "u" and "d" options, respectively.

$ 7z u <archive-filename> <list-of-files-to-update>
$ 7z d <archive-filename> <list-of-files-to-delete>

10. To set a password to an archive file, use -p {password_here} flag as shown.

$ 7za a -p{password_here} tecmint_secrets.tar.7z

For more information refer to the 7z man page, or go to the 7zip Homepage:

That’s all for now! In this article, we have explained 10 7zip (File Archive) command examples in Linux. Use the feedback form below to ask any questions or share your thoughts with us.

6 Best Vi/Vim-Inspired Code Editors for Linux

Vim (short for Vi Improved) is a free, open source, powerful, highly configurable and extensible text editor. It has a large and dedicated community of users that are constantly creating useful new scripts and updates to the text editor. Vim supports hundreds of programming languages and file formats making it one of the best cross-platform code editor.

Read Also: 18 Best IDEs for Programmers and Developers

Although Vim is continuously being developed to become a much better text editor, many users have now created several Vim-like editors with fewer but powerful and usable features, out there. In this article, we will review 6 best Vi/Vim-inspired code editors for Linux systems.

1. Kakoune Code Editor

Kakoune is a free, open source, interactive, fast, completely customizable and scriptable Vim-inspired code editor with a client/server architecture. It runs on Unix-like systems such as Linux, FreeBSD, MacOS, and Cygwin.

Kakoune Code Editor for Linux

Kakoune Code Editor for Linux

It comes with a number of text editing/writing tools, supports syntax highlighting, auto-completion while typing, and supports many different programming languages. It also implements multiple selections as an essential procedure for interacting with your text. In addition, Kakoune’s client/server architecture allows for collaborative code editing.

2. Neovim

Neovim is a free open source, powerful, extensible and usable code editor that provides Vim’s fundamental traditional features. It is an extension of Vim that comes with an in-built Linux terminal emulator with modern terminal features such as cursor styling, focus events, and bracketed paste. Importantly, it supports most Vim plugins.

NeoVim Editor for Linux

NeoVim Editor for Linux

NeoVim provides an AppImage that runs on most Linux systems, just download and run it as shown.

# curl -LO
# chmod u+x nvim.appimage
# ./nvim.appimage

3. Amp Text Editor

Amp is a free open source, lightweight, simple and Vi/Vim-inspired code editor for your Linux terminal, developed using Rust programming language. It implements the core interaction model of Vi/Vim in a simplified way, and assembles some of the basic features you will find in modern text editors.

AMP Text Editor for Linux

AMP Text Editor for Linux

4. Vis – Vim-like Text Editor

Vis is a free open source, Vi-like code editor which extends vi’s modal editing with built-in support for multiple cursors/selections implemented with same editor’s structural regular expression based command language.

Vis Vim-Like Text Editor for Linux

Vis Vim-Like Text Editor for Linux

It comes with a file and directory browser, supports diff-mode, vimgrep, encryption and compression. It supports common file archiving formats such as tar, zip and many more. It also allows you to work with network protocols such as HTTP, FTP, and SSH among others. Furthermore, Vis comes with an embedded shell checker and more.

Vis is included in most Linux distributions and can be easily installed using package management systems.

5. Nvi – Node.JS VI Text Editor

Nvi is also a free open source, Vim-inspired code editor that provides Vim’s best features combined with a 256-color terminal text-based user interface, and tiled windows.

Nvi Vi-Like Text Editor for Linux

Nvi Vi-Like Text Editor for Linux

It has its own modes: COMBO, NORMAL, REPLACE, BLOCK, LINE-BLOCK, and COMMAND. It allows for connecting several sessions in host-guests configuration, thus enabling collaborative code editing. It additionally supports local UNIX and remote TCP socket for pairing.

6. Pyvim – Pure Python Vim Clone

Pyvim is a free open source, reimplementation of Vim in Python, without C extensions and runs on Pypy. It supports Vi key bindings, syntax highlighting, lots of color-schemes, horizontal and vertical splits, tab pages, and so much more.

Pyvim Python Code Editor

Pyvim Python Code Editor

That’s all! In this article, we have listed 6 best Vim-inspired code editors for Linux. If we have missed any that you are using, let us know via the feedback form below.

How to Enable NGINX Status Page

Nginx is a free open source, high-performance, reliable, scalable and fully extensible web server, load balancer and reverse proxy software. It has a simple and easy-to-understand configuration language. It also supports a multitude of modules both static (which have existed in Nginx since the first version) and dynamic (introduced in version 1.9.11).

One of the important modules in Nginx is the ngx_http_stub_status_module module which provides access to basic Nginx status information via a “status page”. It shows information such as total number of active client connections, those accepted, and those handled, total number of requests and number of reading, writing and waiting connections.

Read Also: Amplify – NGINX Monitoring Made Easy

On most Linux distributions, the Nginx version comes with the ngx_http_stub_status_module enabled. You can check out if the module is already enabled or not using following command.

# nginx -V 2>&1 | grep -o with-http_stub_status_module
Check Nginx Status Module

Check Nginx Status Module

If you see --with-http_stub_status_module as output in the terminal, means the status module is enabled. If the above command returns no output, you need to compile NGINX from source using the –with-http_stub_status_module as configuration parameter as shown.

# wget
# tar xfz nginx-1.13.12.tar.gz
# cd nginx-1.13.12/
# ./configure --with-http_stub_status_module
# make
# make install

After verifying the module, you will also need to enable stub_status module in the NGINX configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf to set up a locally reachable URL (e.g., for the status page.

location /nginx_status {
allow; #only allow requests from localhost
deny all; #deny all other hosts }
Enable Nginx Status Page

Enable Nginx Status Page

Make sure to replace with your server’s IP address and also make sure that this page accessible to only you.

After making configurations changes, make sure to check nginx configuration for any errors and restart the nginx service to effect the recent changes using following commands.

# nginx -t
# nginx -s reload 
Check Nginx Configuration

Check Nginx Configuration

After reloading nginx server, now you can visit the Nginx status page at the below URL using curl program to see your metrics.

# curl
# curl
Check Nginx Status Page

Check Nginx Status Page

Important: The ngx_http_stub_status_module module has been superseded by the ngx_http_api_module module in Nginx 1.13.0 version.

That’s all! In this article, we have showed how to enable Nginx status page in Linux. Use the comment form below to ask any questions.